Wyslij-po Manual

Table of Contents


Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:     FastForward: Submit   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

1 Introduction to Wyslij-po

It is a common practice for a program to be documented and to produce its diagnostics in English. Whether this practice is good or bad is a topic of a separate discussion. However it is, the waste majority of us would prefer their computer to speak our native language instead. This goal is already achieved for many free software programs, and is going to be achieved for still more of them using the methods called internationalization and localization. These terms are often written abbreviated as i18n and l10n, correspondingly. In short, i18n consists in modifying a program in such a way that, while still producing its output in English, it would allow this output to be translated to any given language on the fly. Similarly, l10n consists in supplying an already internationalized program enough information for it to be able to translate its output to a particular language. Both terms are discussed in further detail in I18n in GNU gettext manual.

While internationalization is usually taken care of by programmers, localization is the responsibility of translators. Usually this process consists of creating a special file, called PO file, which is basically a table of all the messages a given program ever issues, which, for each such message, lists its translation (or translations) to a given language (see PO Files in GNU gettext manual).

When a translator finishes a given PO file, he submits it via electronic mail to the free Translation Project (http://translationproject.org), or TP for short, which acts as a repository for the existing translations. It is from the Translation Project that maintainers download PO files for inclusion into their project while preparing them for the release.

There are several ways to submit a translation. First, it can, of course, be submitted manually. Secondly, you can use M (po-send-mail) command in GNU Emacs po-mode (see PO Files in GNU gettext manual). Finally, you can use some specialized program to do that.

If you select the last possibility, wyslij-po is for you. It is a specialized program which verifies PO files and submits them to the TP.

The program name1 means ‘send-po’ in Polish and is pronounced roughly like ‘vishleey-po’.

The program is built using GNU Mailutils — a powerful collection of libraries and utilities for handling electronic mail.

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Intro     FastForward: Dry-run   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

2 Submitting Translations.

To submit one or several PO files, simply give them as arguments to wyslij-po in the command line, like this:

$ wyslij-po pl.po uk.po bg.po

For each file, specified in the command line, the utility will do the following steps:

  1. Retrieve PO headers

    PO headers contain important information about the translation. These headers are stored in the first entry of each PO file.

  2. Restore canonical PO name.

    A canonical PO name consists of the project name and version, separated by dash, which are followed by a dot, the language code as per ISO 639, and the suffix ‘.po’. To determine the canonical name, wyslij-po uses the contents of Project-Id-Version and Language-Team PO headers. The value of Project-Id-Version supplies the name and version of the project this file is for, and the value of Language-Team gives the full name of the language served by this PO. This full name is then looked up in a language table - a special file listing for each language name its ISO 639 code (see Langtab), and the code found is then used. For example, if the two headers in question were:

    Project-Id-Version: cflow 1.2
    Language-Team: Polish 

    then the canonical name for that file is cflow-1.2.pl.po.

  3. Verify the consistency of PO file.

    This step ensures that the file corresponds to the latest version of the package in question and that it does not contain obvious formatting errors. For the detailed description of the checks performed, see Verification, below.

  4. Form the message to be submitted.

    The message is a MIME 1.0 message, whose body contains the compressed PO file, and the headers contain the necessary registration information (see Message).

  5. Send the message.

    See Sending, below.

The following sections describe each step in detail.

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Submit   Up: Submit   FastForward: Dry-run   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

2.1 Verification

Before constructing a submission message, wyslij-po first verifies if the PO file in question matches several important conditions. It is done in order to reduce the unwanted traffic and the impact on the TP mail server and robot.

As of version 2.2.1, the following tests are implemented:

  1. PO revision date.

    The values of the PO headers PO-Revision-Date and POT-Creation-Date are compared. If POT-Creation-Date is after PO-Revision-Date, the PO file is obviously outdated and therefore it is not submitted.

    This test is controlled by the following command line options:


    Verify PO modification time (default).


    Disable PO modification time verification.

    In configuration file, this test is controlled by the verify-po-time boolean statement (see verify-po-time).

  2. Package version

    This test verifies if this PO file is created for the latest version of the package available. To verify this the following algorithm is used. First, the textual domain url is built using the following schema:


    where ${domain} is replaced with the project name obtained from the Project-Id-Version PO header.

    Then, the contents of this page is retrieved, and the following extended regular expression is executed over it:

    The current template for this domain is <a href=".[^"]*/(.[^"]*)">

    If the expression matches, the value of the first parenthesized subexpression is retrieved, the optional ‘.pot’ suffix is removed from it and the result is compared with the value of Project-Id-Version PO header, converted as described in canonical-name. The two strings must be equal in order for the test to succeed.

    This test is controlled by the following command line options:


    Enable package version verification (default).


    Disable package version verification.

    In configuration file, this test is controlled by the verify-version boolean statement (see verify-version).

    Two configuration file statements are provided for tuning this test. The tp-url statement changes the textual domain template (see tp-url) and the pot-regex statement changes the regular expression (see pot-regex).

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Submit   Up: Submit   FastForward: Dry-run   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

2.2 Message

The minimal message headers are:

From: sender
To: robot-address
Subject: TP-Robot canonical-name
X-Mailer: wyslij-po 2.2.1



The email of the sender. Unless otherwise specified, it is constructed by concatenating the actual user name, a ‘@’ sign, and the host name of the local host.

This value can be set explicitly using --from (-F) command line option. When used without additional arguments, as in:

$ wyslij-po -F pl.po

this option instructs wyslij-po to extract sender name from the value of Last-Translator PO header. This is equivalent to setting from-po true in the configuration file (see from-po).

This option can also be used with an explicit argument, which specifies the email to be used as a sender address. It is important to remember that when the short option form is used, this argument must follow the option letter immediately, without any intervening whitespace. If the long option form is used, this argument must be delimited from the option name by an equals sign with no extra whitespace on either side of it. The following invocations illustrate this:

wyslij-po -Ftrans@gnu.org.ua
wyslij-po --from=trans@gnu.org.ua

This can be requested in configuration file by using from statement (see from).


The email of the TP robot. By default it is:


It can be changed using --to (-t) command line option, or to configuration statement (see to).


The canonical name of the PO file. It is determined as described in canonical-name.

Additionally, you can require the message to be copied to any number of emails by using --cc command line option or cc configuration statement. In both cases, the argument is a string containing a comma-separated list of valid email addresses, as in:

$ wyslij-po --cc "tp-keeper@dom.ain,root@remote.org"

If you wish to make those additional addresses invisible, use --bcc command line option (or bcc configuration statement) instead.

The --fcc option specifies the folder to store the copy of the message into. Its argument is any mailbox URL supported by Mailutils (see URL in GNU Mailutils Manual). For example, the following option will place copies of the PO files in the MH folder Mail/sent:

$ wyslij-po --fcc mh://Mail/sent

In configuration file, this is done via the fcc statement (see fcc).

The PO file contents is by default sent in compressed form. To produce it, gzip program is used (see Overview in Gzip Manual). Notice, that the gzip binary must be in your PATH, otherwise wyslij-po won’t be able to find it. You can specify the full path to the binary and/or supply any additional options by using the --gzip (--compress) command line option. For example, to use /usr/bin/gzip with the highest possible compression level, use:

$ wyslij-po --gzip "/usr/bin/gzip -c --best"

Use compress statement to set the compression command from the configuration file (see compress).

Notice, that when setting compression command (either from command line or from configuration file), you must always include -c option in the gzip command line.

Yet another way to supply additional arguments to gzip is by using GZIP environment variable (see Environment in Gzip Manual).

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Submit   Up: Submit   FastForward: Dry-run   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

2.3 Sending

As any mailutils-based program, wyslij-po uses a special logical entity called mailer in order to actually submit messages. By default it uses the MTA facilities of the machine it runs on, so you usually don’t have to explicitly specify which mailer to use. There may, however, be some cases when this becomes necessary. This section describes how to do so.

A mailer is specified by its URL. An URL begins with a protocol specification. Two protocol specifications are currently supported: ‘sendmail’ and ‘smtp’. The former means to use a sendmail-compatible program to send mails. Such a program must be able to read mail from its standard input and must support the following options:


Do not treat ’.’ as message terminator.

-f addr

Use addr as the address of the sender.


Get recipient addresses from the message.

These conditions are met by most existing MTA programs, such as exim or postfix (to say nothing of sendmail itself).

Following the protocol specification is the mailer location, which is separated from it with a colon. For the ‘sendmail’ protocol, the mailer location sets the full file name of the sendmail-compatible MTA binary, for example:


A special form of a sendmail URL, consisting of protocol specification only (‘sendmail:’) is also allowed. It means “use the sendmail binary from the _PATH_SENDMAIL macro in your /usr/include/paths.h file”. This is the default mailer.

The ‘smtp’ protocol means to use an SMTP server directly. In this case the mailer location consists of two slashes, followed by the IP address or host name of the SMTP server, and, optionally, the port number. If the port number is present, it is separated from the rest of URL by a colon. For example:


The URL of the mailer to use is set using --mailer (-M) command line option. For example:

$ wyslij-po --mailer=smtp:// pl.po

An alternative way is to set it in the configuration file, using mailer statement (see Mailer Statement in GNU Mailutils Manual).

As an example of a rather extreme approach, here is how to deliver mails directly to the TP mail server:

$ wyslij-po --mailer=smtp://mail.vrijschrift.org …

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Submit     FastForward: Config   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

3 Debugging, Verbose Output and Dry-run Mode.

Usually wyslij-po operates silently. It issues a diagnostics only if something serious has happened (an error, for example). You may wish to change this behavior in order to trace the progress of the submission.

The --verbose command line option instructs the program to increase its verbosity level. Each occurrence of this option in the command line raises the level by one, so to get the verbosity level 3 you would type:

$ wyslij-po -vvv …

The bigger the level, the more information will be produced on the output.

Here is an example of the output produced in level 1:

$ wyslij-po -v pl.po  
pl.po: cflow-1.2.pl.po

Message headers:
Content-transfer-encoding: base64
Content-Type: application/x-gzip; name="cflow-1.2.pl.po.gz"
MIME-Version: 1.0
From: trans@gnu.org.ua
To: robot@translationproject.org
Subject: TP-Robot cflow-1.2.pl.po
X-Mailer: wyslij-po 2.2.1

Here, the first line shows the input file name and the corresponding canonical PO name for it. The remaining lines show RFC 2822 message headers.

The verbosity level 2 shows additional information about the progress:

$ wyslij-po -vv pl.po
Sourcing language table `./wyslij-po.lc'
Restoring canonical file name for `pl.po'
Verifying POT file version for `mailutils'
Verifying creation vs. revision date
pl.po: cflow-1.2.pl.po
executing gzip -c pl.po...

Message headers:
Content-transfer-encoding: base64
Content-Type: application/x-gzip; name="cflow-1.2.pl.po.gz"
MIME-Version: 1.0
From: trans@gnu.org.ua
To: robot@translationproject.org
Subject: TP-Robot cflow-1.2.pl.po
X-Mailer: wyslij-po 2.2.1

Submitting pl.po

The levels 3 and 4 print lots of information concerning actual SMTP transaction. These are mainly useful for debugging.

It is often desirable to know what wyslij-po would do, without actually sending translations. The special command line option --dry-run (-n) is designed for this purpose. When this option is given, wyslij-po will do all its usual processing, except for actually sending the result. This option automatically sets verbose level to 1 (of course you can push it higher by supplying additional -v options along with --dry-run):

$ wyslij-po --dry-run pl.po  
pl.po: cflow-1.2.pl.po

Message headers:
Content-transfer-encoding: base64
Content-Type: application/x-gzip; name="cflow-1.2.pl.po.gz"
MIME-Version: 1.0
From: trans@gnu.org.ua
To: robot@translationproject.org
Subject: TP-Robot cflow-1.2.pl.po
X-Mailer: wyslij-po 2.2.1

NOT submitting

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Dry-run     FastForward: Langtab   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

4 Configuration Files.

If you have a set of commonly used wyslij-po options, it is convenient to keep them in a configuration file, instead of typing them again each time you invoke the program. Wyslij-po uses the Mailutils concept of configuration files, which is described in detail in Mailutils Configuration File in GNU Mailutils Manual.

There are two possible locations for the wyslij-po configuration. System-wide configuration is kept in the main configuration file (see Main site-wide configuration file in GNU Mailutils Manual), in section program wyslij-po, or in the file named wyslij-po in the configuration include directory, if the include statement is used (see Include Statement in GNU Mailutils Manual). Per-user configuration is kept in file ~/.wyslij-po.

To set default mailer (similar to --mailer option, see mailer), use mailer statement, See Mailer Statement in GNU Mailutils Manual.

Configuration: compress command

Set command line of the utility used for file compression. For example:

compress "/usr/bin/bzip2 -c";

See gzip, for a detailed discussion of file compression.

See also –compress, for another way to set this value.

Configuration: langtab file

Set the name of the language table file. See Langtab.

Configuration: to email

Set TP robot (recipient) email address. See Sending.

Configuration: cc email

Set emails of carbon copy recipients. Email may contain multiple email addresses, separated by commas:

cc "<tp@localhost>,<bitbucket@remote.tld>";

Notice the use of quote characters.

See also –cc, for another way to set this value.

Configuration: bcc email

Set emails of carbon copy recipients.

See also –bcc, for another way to set this value.

Configuration: fcc folder

Store a copy of the sent message in the specified mail folder. Folder can be any valid mailbox URL (see URL in GNU Mailutils Manual). The following example instructs wyslij-po to keep copies of the messages it sends in a MH folder ‘+po-out’:

fcc "mh:~/Mail/po-out";
Configuration: from email

Set sender e-mail address. See Message, for a detailed description. See also –from, for another way to set this value.

Configuration: from-po bool

Read sender e-mail address from the value of Last-Translator PO header. It is equivalent to specifying the --from (-F) command line option without argument.

Configuration: verify-po-time bool

Controls whether to verify PO modification time before sending the message.

See revision date, for a description of this test.

Configuration: verify-version string

Controls whether to verify package version before sending the message.

See Package version, for a description of this test.

Configuration: tp-url template

Sets template for the textual domain URL. See textual domain url, for a description of its purpose.

Template must be a valid HTTP URL. It must contain at least one occurrence of ${domain}, which will be replaced by the actual name of the textual domain.

Configuration: pot-regex regex

Set the regular expression matching the name of the last POT file for the textual domain. See regular expression, for a detailed description of its purposes.

Regex must be an extended regular expression (see Extended regular expressions in GNU sed) with exactly one parenthesized group.

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Config     FastForward: Reporting Bugs   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

5 Language Tables.

To recreate the canonical PO name (see canonical-name) for a given translation, wyslij-po needs to know the language code associated with this language. This information cannot be obtained from PO file directly. Instead, wyslij-po obtains the full language name from the Language-Team PO header, and then uses this value as a look-up key in a set of language tables. If the key is found, its value gives the language code.

The language tables are stored in plain text files. Their format is as follows:

For example, the following entry:

pt_BR Brazilian Portuguese

means that when the string ‘Brazilian Portuguese’ is encountered at the beginning of the Language-Team PO header, the language code ‘pt_BR’ will be used.

There are two language table files: a system-wide and a per-user one.

The system-wide language table is stored in file wyslij-po.lc in your system configuration directory (by default it is /usr/local/etc, but can be changed at compile time).

The per-user language table is read after the system-wide one. It is located in the user’s home directory and is named .wyslij-po.lc. You can also supply another file name, using the --langtab command line option, e.g. --langtab=mytab.lc.

The contents of both files are concatenated and stored in a single table.

Notice that it is not an error if a language table file does not exist. Wyslij-po will silently ignore non-existing files. Therefore, if you get the similar error:

wyslij-po: Unknown language: Bulgarian

you should make sure the right tables are read, by running wyslij-po with the -vv (or, better yet, --dry-run --verbose) command line option. In normal case, it will at least read the site-wide language table, which will be reflected in its output:

$ wyslij-po --dry-run -v bg.po
Sourcing language table `/usr/local/etc/wyslij-po.lc'
Restoring canonical file name for `bg.po'

If it does not, make sure you install the table or supply its alternate name using --langtab. Otherwise, inspect the table and add an entry for the language in question.

The package is shipped with a system wide configuration file built using the data from http://translationproject.org/team, so most of the time you won’t have to edit it (unless, of course, new language teams are added to the TP)

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Langtab     FastForward: Build   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

6 How to Report a Bug

Email bug reports to bug-wyslij-po@gnu.org.ua.

As the purpose of bug reporting is to improve software, please be sure to include maximum information when reporting a bug. The information needed is:

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Reporting Bugs     FastForward: Invoke   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

Appendix A How to Build the Package

Building wyslij-po is quite straightforward:

  1. Make sure you have installed the GNU Mailutils, version 2.0 or later.
  2. Run ./configure
  3. Run make
  4. Run make install

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Build     FastForward: Concept Index   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

Appendix B Invocation Summary.

This appendix lists all wyslij-po command line options. For each option are given a short description and a reference to the part of this manual that fully describes it.


Set blind carbon-copy recipients (see Message).


Set carbon-copy recipients (see Message).


Use this command for compression (see Message).


Do nothing, print what would have been done (see Dry-run).


Store copy of each message sent in the given folder.


Set sender address (see Message).


Give a short help summary


Set the name of the per-user language table file (see Langtab).

-M url

Use the specified url as the default mailer. See Sending.


Disable PO modification time verification. See Verification.


Disable package version verification. See Verification.

-t email

Set TP robot (recipient) email address. See Sending.


Produce a listing of all command line options.


Produce verbose output. See Dry-run.


Verify PO modification time. See Verification.


Make sure the submitted PO file matches the latest package version. See Verification.


Print program version

Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Invoke     FastForward: Concept Index   Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

Copying This Manual

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ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

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Wyslij-po Manual:   Section:   Chapter:FastBack: Invoke       Contents: Table of ContentsIndex: Concept Index

Concept Index

This is a general index of all issues discussed in this manual

Jump to:   B   C   D   F   G   H   I   L   M   N   O   P   S   T   U   V   W  
Index Entry  Section
bcc, --bcc option, described: Message
building wyslij-po: Build
cc, --cc option, described: Message
Command line options: Invoke
compress, --compress option, described: Message
compress, --compress option, summary: Invoke
configuration file: Config
dry-run, --dry-run option, described: Dry-run
dry-run, --dry-run option, summary: Invoke
fcc, --fcc option, described: Message
fcc, --fcc option, summary: Invoke
from, --from option, described: Message
from, --from option, summary: Invoke
GNU Mailutils: Intro
gzip: Message
gzip, --gzip option, described: Message
gzip, --gzip option, summary: Invoke
help, --help option, summary: Invoke
i18n: Intro
Internationalization: Intro
l18n: Intro
langtab, --langtab option, described: Langtab
langtab, --langtab option, summary: Invoke
language code: Langtab
language tables, files: Langtab
language tables, format: Langtab
Localization: Intro
mailer: Sending
mailer URL: Sending
mailer, --mailer option, described: Sending
mailer, --mailer option, summary: Invoke
Mailutils: Intro
no-verify-po-time, --no-verify-po-time option, summary: Invoke
no-verify-version, --no-verify-version option, summary: Invoke
Options, command line: Invoke
PO file: Intro
PO headers: Submit
PO verification: Verification
sending messages: Sending
to, --to option, described: Message
to, --to option, summary: Invoke
TP: Intro
Translation Project: Intro
URL, mailer: Sending
usage, --usage option, summary: Invoke
verbose, --verbose option, described: Dry-run
verbose, --verbose option, summary: Invoke
Verification of PO files: Verification
verify-po-time, --verify-po-time option, summary: Invoke
verify-version, --verify-version option, summary: Invoke
version, --version option, summary: Invoke
wyslij-po: Intro
wyslij-po: Intro
wyslij-po, building: Build
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It should more properly have been written ‘wyślij-po’.